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Item response models for human ratings: Overview, estimation methods, and implementation in R
Robitzsch, A., Steinfeld, J.

Item response models for human ratings: Overview, estimation methods, and implementation in R

Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 60(1), 101-139. Open Access

Item response theory (IRT) models for human ratings aim to represent item and rater characteristics by item and rater parameters. First, an overview of different IRT models (many-facet rater models, covariance structure models, and hierarchical rater models) is presented. Next, different estimation methods and their implementation in R software are discussed. Furthermore, suggestions on how to choose an appropriate rater model are made. Finally, the application of several rater models in R is illustrated by a sample dataset.