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Private tutoring when stakes are high: Insights from the transition from primary to secondary school in Germany.
K. Guill, K. Lintorf

Private tutoring when stakes are high: Insights from the transition from primary to secondary school in Germany.

International Journal of Educational Development. Open access

Private supplementary tutoring is a widespread and controversial phenomenon. The pressure high-stakes exams put on students is often held responsible for high tutoring rates. Our study tested this hypothesis by using regional variance in Germany: Results from two of three large-scale studies give evidence that, in regions where the transition from primary to secondary school resembles high-stakes exams, the probability to attend private tutoring is higher than in other regions. Therefore, we discuss how a more flexible education system with different pathways to the same educational goal might obviate the need for private tutoring and we consider this system’s side-effects.

DOI: 10.1016/j.ijedudev.2018.08.001